Friday, July 26, 2013

3 more scrambled paragraphs: Opium War, Asteroid Belt, Thurgood Marshall

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Answers for the scrambled paragraphs are below the exercises:

During the eighteenth century, the market in Europe and America for tea, a new drink in the West, expanded greatly.

_____ (Q) To remedy the situation, the foreigners developed a third-party trade, exchanging their merchandise in India and Southeast Asia for raw materials and semi-processed goods, which found a ready market in Guangzhou. 

_____ (R) But China, still in its preindustrial stage, wanted little that the West had to offer, causing the Westerners, mostly British, to incur an unfavorable balance of trade. 

_____ (S) By the early nineteenth century, raw cotton and opium from India had become the staple British imports into China, in spite of the fact that opium was prohibited entry by imperial decree.

_____ (T) The opium traffic was made possible through the connivance of profit-seeking merchants and a corrupt bureaucracy. 

_____ (U) Additionally, there was a continuing demand for Chinese silk and porcelain.

In 1802 Heinrich Olbers theorized that the asteroid belt was formed by an ancient planet exploding.

_____ (Q) The large amount of energy that would have been required to destroy a planet, combined with the belt’s low combined mass tends to destroy that theory. 

_____ (R) This planet either suffered an internal explosion or a cometary impact many million years ago.

_____ (S) Today it is believed that the planets were formed by a process of accretion and the asteroid belt are just pieces that have never joined a planet. 

_____ (T) It is believed that they were formed by the same process of accretion. 

_____ (U) The larger asteroids are on the verge of being classified as dwarf planets.

Marshall graduated first in his class from the Howard University School of Law in 1933.

_____ (Q) Early in his career, as a young lawyer, he fought the State of Maryland for equal pay for black schoolteachers who were receiving the same salary as janitors. 

_____ (R) He argued many successful cases before the U.S. Supreme Court (wining 29 of 32 cases), including Smith v. Allwright in 1944, Shelly v. Kraemer in 1948, Sweatt v. Painter in 1950, and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents in 1950. 

_____ (S) Then, at the age of 32, Marshall won his first U.S. Supreme Court Case, Chambers v. Florida, and later that year, he was named chief counsel for the NAACP. 

_____ (T) By 1936, he established a private practice in Baltimore where he began working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). 

_____ (U) But, it wasn’t until 1954, when he argued Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, in which the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the “Separate but Equal” doctrine, thus ending legalized segregation of education institutions.

opium war ----> 3,2,4,5,1   ----->  3=Q, 2=R, 4=S, 5=T, 1=U

asteroid belt ----------------> 2,1,3,5,4

Thurgood Marshall --------------> 1,4,3,2,5