Friday, August 2, 2013

3 more free scrambled paragraphs: Lawrence of Arabia, Gutenberg's book, Coevolution

Answers are below the exercises:

{{T.E. Lawrence was an English officer during World War I.  He helped unite various Arabic tribes to fight against the nation of Turkey. At that time, the Middle East was under Turkish control and England felt that an uprising by the Arabic people would harm the Turkish war effort (Turkey was allied with Germany in World War I).  Lawrence seemed to sincerely want to help the Arabic people gain their freedom and independence, and he was disgusted by England's attempt to control the Arabic people after the war.}}

To aid the Arabs in their cause, Lawrence was sent to Arabia as a liaison officer in October 1916.

_____ (Q) Riding with Emir Faisal, Lawrence and the Arabs launched multiple strikes against the railway and threatened Medina's lines of communication.

_____ (R) The Ottoman's sole remaining port on the Red Sea, the town had the potential to serve as a supply base for an Arab advance north.

_____ (S) As such, he discouraged them from directly attacking Medina as attacking the Hedjaz Railway, which supplied the city, would tie down more Ottoman troops.

_____ (T) After aiding in the defense of Yenbo in December, Lawrence convinced Hussein's sons, Emir Faisal and Abdullah, to coordinate their actions with the larger British strategy in the region.
_____ (U) Achieving success, Lawrence began moving against Aqaba in mid-1917.

Gutenberg's invention did not make him rich.

_____ (Q) This was a sign that it was felt by those in authority to be dangerous and challenging to their position.

_____ (R) It laid, however, the foundation for the commercial mass production of books. 

_____ (S) As a consequence, the printed book also led to more stringent attempts at censorship.

_____ (T) The success of printing meant that books soon became cheaper, and ever wider parts of the population could afford them.

_____ (U) More than ever before, it enabled people to follow debates and take part in discussions of matters that concerned them.

{{Coevolution is, basically, when two differing species evolve in harmony with each other.  For instance, there is a certain type of flower that only opens when a certain type of bee sits on a certain leaf of the flower.  The flower evolved so that it only opens for this one bee to gain the nectar.  The bee evolved to fit perfectly onto the leaf.  The bee gets the nectar and pollinates the flower. Both species benefit from this type of mutualism.}}

Plants and insects represent a classic case of coevolution—one that is often, but not always, mutualistic.

_____ (Q) These hollow thorns are the exclusive nest-site of some species of ant that drink the nectar. 

_____ (R) But we can see exclusive “matches” between plants and insects even when pollination is not involved. 

_____ (S) Many plants and their pollinators are so reliant on one another, and their relationships are so exclusive, that biologists have good reason to think that the “match” between the two is the result of a coevolutionary process.

_____ (T) For instance, some Central American Acacia species have hollow thorns and pores at the bases of their leaves that secrete nectar.

_____ (U) But the ants are not just taking advantage of the plant—they also defend their acacia plant against herbivores.

Answers are below:


Lawrence of Arabia --------------> 3,5,2,1,4 ---->  3=Q, 5=R, 2=S, 1=T, 4=U

Guttenberg ---------->  5,1,4,2,3

Coevolution -------> 4,2,1,3,5