Saturday, August 31, 2013

5 More New Scrambled Paragraphs

Answers are beneath the exercise:

Useful vocabulary:

seminal - this word comes from the Latin word for seed.  A seminal work is a work that is a type of seed for other authors or books.  It is an original work from which other people take ideas.

profound - deep

deprivation - if you lack something, you are deprived of that thing. Economic deprivation means poverty.

hardship - difficulties

to alleviate - to make something better

The book that had made such an immediate and profound impact on Gandhi was John Ruskin’s seminal work Unto This Last.

_____ (Q) The focus of Ruskin’s work was on the nature of economic inequality in society, which was seen to be morally wrong because it generated, in large sections of the population, deprivation and hardship.

_____ (R) Originally a collection of four articles published in the Cornhill Magazine (London) and Harper’s (New York) in 1860, they were later published in book form. 

_____ (S) "There is no wealth but life.” Ruskin wrote, and life incorporated everybody, there were no exceptions.

_____ (T) A copy of the work was given to Gandhi, as a gift, whilst he was practicing law as a young man in South Africa and it led to a deep reassessment of his life.

_____ (U) The solution, he thought, was a fairer distribution of wealth to alleviate this suffering.

to subsume - to take over and destroy something and replace it with something else

Celtic culture survived longer in Ireland than in continental Europe, and in many ways it still survives today. 

_____ (Q) The Romans never occupied Ireland, nor did the Anglo-Saxons who invaded Britain after the Romans withdrew in the 5th century, so Celtic culture survived more strongly in Ireland than elsewhere (partly because of hill forts). 

_____ (R) Julius Caesar conducted a successful campaign against the Gauls in 52-58 B.C., and as part of that campaign invaded Britain in 54 B.C. but was unsuccessful in conquering the island. 

_____ (S) Christianity came to Ireland in the 4th century, St. Patrick coming in 432, so that many of the Celtic cultural elements integrated with Christianity. 
_____ (T) Ninety-seven years later, in 43 A.D., the Romans invaded Britain again, pushing the Britons to the west (Wales and Cornwall) and north (Scotland). 
_____ (U) On the continent, the expanding Romans defeated various Celtic groups and subsumed their culture.

collaboration - when people work together instead of competing with each other

to enhance something - to make it better

to transcend something - to move beyond something that seems common or normal

to shrug something off - to indicate or feel that something is not important

a bias - a prejudice

When diversity is embraced and collaboration sought, productivity and creativity can be enhanced, as Harvard education professor Todd Pittinsky has argued in Us Plus Them.

_____ (Q) There are recent examples of such transcendence. 

_____ (R) Support for gay marriage has increased rapidly, and differences are now shrugged off in many countries as not that important, when everyone wants the same thing -- a committed relationship and possibly children.

_____ (S) Interdependence is an even a better tribalism-buster - although mere contact doesn't erase fear and mistrust, a shared task that all parties care about replaces tribal instincts with other motivations.

_____ (T) Research on how groups of mostly one social type treat people who are different confirmed that it takes structural change -- vastly increasing numbers and points of contact -- to overcome casual biases.

_____ (U) One key to getting the benefits is to normalize those who are different by stressing similarities, making them not-so-different after all.

an entrepreneur - a business person

the heyday of something - the most popular time of something

Since the early 1800s, Coney Island, “playground of the world,” has played many roles in the lives and imaginations of New Yorkers and the world.
_____ (Q) From its beginnings as a quiet seaside town, Coney Island went on to boom years in the 1880s, as entrepreneurs rushed to stake their claims and make their fortunes. 
_____ (R) Nevertheless, Coney Island continued to provide an accessible and affordable opportunity for a diverse population, always looming large in the history of New York. 
_____ (S) The amusement parks struggled to stay afloat and Coney Island began to experience hard economic times. 
_____ (T) The area enjoyed brief stability in the late 1890's and early 1900's, the heyday of Luna Park (1903-1946), Dreamland (1904-1911) and Steeplechase Park (1897-1907, 1908-1964), Coney Island’s famed amusement parks, but with the Great Depression, Coney Island transformed once again. 
_____ (U) The area became a “Nickel Empire” of cheap amusements; a nickel paid the fare on the new subway line, and visitors were greeted by the original Nathan’s Famous, home of the five-cent hot dog.
to wreak havoc - to cause chaos, cause severe problems  

Although consuming a little salt is essential for our physiological well-being (and for the fries to taste good), too little or too much wreaks havoc in our bodies.

_____ (Q) When we consume too much salt, we usually excrete the excess in our urine to keep our bodily fluids isotonic.

_____ (R) This means that every 1,000 grams of fluid contains 9 grams of salt and 991 grams of water. 

_____ (S) For humans, that magic number is 9. 

_____ (T) In medicine, fluids that have the same salinity as blood are referred to as isotonic. 

_____ (U) That's the salinity, or the weight in grams of salt dissolved in 1,000 grams of water, of human blood.

Answers are below:


Gandhi ------------> 3,1,5,2,4       3=Q, 1=R, 5=S, 2=T, 4=U
Celts ------------>  4,2,5,3,1
Diversity ---------> 3,4,5,2,1
Coney Island ---------> 1,5,4,2,3
Salt water ------> 5,3,1,4,2
Yes, I'm the guy who created the scandal in Asia awhile ago. I felt that the Korean performers I was teaching in New York City were not being treated up to acceptable standards, and I reported this to a Korean newspaper to help ensure that, in the future, performers would be treated better.