Thursday, August 8, 2013

3 more scrambled paragraphs: great white sharks, Kim Dae-jung, dendrites

Answers are below the exercise.  I'll try to post at least 5 new scrambled paragraphs every Sunday until the date of the test. I hope this helps you...

The legendary great white shark is far more fearsome in our imaginations than in reality.

_____ (Q) As scientific research on these elusive predators increases, their image as mindless killing machines is beginning to fade.

_____ (R) However, most of these are not fatal.  

_____ (S) It's not a terribly comforting distinction, but it does indicate that humans are not actually on the great white's menu.

_____ (T) It's true that of the 100-plus annual shark attacks worldwide, fully one-third to one-half are attributable to great whites. 

_____ (U) Indeed, new research finds that great whites, who are naturally curious, are "sample biting" then releasing their victims rather than preying on humans.

As President Park Chung Hee sought constitutional revisions in 1969 to allow himself to run for a third term, Kim Dae-jung gave an address against the scheme in an outdoor rally, and he was widely acclaimed for his vision and courage.

_____ (Q) A heavily-loaded truck rammed into his car, seriously injuring him and his two aides. 

_____ (R) Despite the obstructionist tactics and illegal electioneering practices of the ruling party, he garnered over 46 per cent of the votes cast.

_____ (S) He was chosen the presidential candidate of the New Democratic Party in 1971, running against the all-powerful incumbent, Park Chung Hee. 

_____ (T) During the Assembly election campaign that soon followed the presidential vote, opposition leader Kim experienced what was to be the first of at least five attempts on his life by his political foes.

_____ (U) President Kim  suffered from the leg injury incurred in this 'accident' until his death in 2009.

There were many heroes in South Korea who fought for democracy.  Kim Dae-Jung was one of them. When I started working with adult foreign students, many of my students were from Korea and told me about Kim Dae-Jung. He became a hero of mine.

OK, this one might be tough because of all the weird scientific terminology...but try it anyway.

Basically, a long time ago a scientist did an experiment in which he raised two groups of rats under different circumstances.  One group was raised in a super-enriched environment. That meant that there were many toys and things to play with or climb over in their environment.  The other group was raised in a very plain environment. 

When the researcher killed and decapitated the rats (cut their heads off so he could examine their brain tissue) from both groups, he was surprised.  He saw that the brains of the rats from the super-enriched environment looked more complex than the brains of the rats raised in the boring environment. He concluded that young rats (or any type of mammals) should be raised in complex environments to make sure that they had complex brain development.

The complexity was due to 'dendritic branching.'  There are little branchlike things that grow between neurons (brain cells).  These dendrites can connect to other neurons. The more complex a rat's environment, the more of these 'branches' will grow.

In this scrambled paragraph they wanted to see how the drug lithium might affect dendritic branching.  See whether you can get this one.  When they talk about synaptic plasticity, they mean how much the nerve cell can change.  If the drug has therapeutic efficacy, it can help people.

A large body of evidence from molecular, cellular and human studies suggests that lithium may enhance synaptic plasticity, which may be associated with its therapeutic efficacy.

_____ (Q) Following 4 week lithium or control chow feeding, animals were decapitated, the hippocampi were prepared and stained using a rapid Golgi staining technique and the amount and distribution of the dendritic branching was evaluated using Sholl analyses (method of concentric circles). 

_____ (R) In area CA1, the same treatment also increased the number of dendritic branches in the proximal half of apical dendritic trees of CA1 pyramidal cells and reduced branching in the distal half of apical dendritic trees but had no effect on basilar dendritic trees.

_____ (S) In the DG, lithium treatment increased the amount and distribution of dendritic branches in the proximal half of dendritic trees of the granule cells and reduced branching in the distal half. 

_____ (T) To determine whether lithium treatment alters structural synaptic plasticity, this study examined the effect of 4 week lithium treatment on the amount and distribution of dendrites in the dentate gyrus (DG) and hippocampal area CA1 of young adult rats. 

_____ (U) However, only a small number of studies have directly assessed this.

The student who made this video had COURAGE. :P :P :P Kudos to him.

Answers are below:


Great white sharks - 1,3,5,2,4  ------------->  Q=1, R=3, S=5, T=2, U=4
Kim Dae-Jung ----------------> 4,2,1,3,5
Lithium and Dendrites -------> 3,5,4,2,1