Sunday, June 2, 2013

5 Practice Scrambled Paragraphs

Answers follow the exercises:

Loosely speaking, a black hole is a region of space that has so much mass concentrated in it that there is no way for a nearby object to escape its gravitational pull. 

______ (Q) Now imagine an object with such an enormous concentration of mass in such a small radius that its escape velocity would be greater than the velocity of light. 

______ (R) Suppose that you are standing on the surface of a planet, and you throw a rock straight up into the air and watch it come back down.  

______ (S) If you could throw the rock hard enough, though, you could make it escape the planet's gravity entirely and it would keep on going forever.  

______ (T) As you would expect, the escape velocity depends on the mass of the planet: if the planet is extremely massive, then its gravity is very strong, and the escape velocity is high. 

______ (U) The speed with which you would need to throw the rock in order that it just barely escapes the planet's gravity is called the "escape velocity."

You don’t have to be Dionysus to make wine.

______ (Q) Then it is necessary to press the “must” in order to squeeze every last delicious drop from the protesting grapes and this extracted juice is poured into a vat.

______ (R) Once the yeast dies, it is cleared out of the wine by adding bentonite which clings to the yeasties and other bad things and then settles to the bottom of the carboy, ultimately resulting in an unencumbered wine ready to age or bottle.

______ (S) The fermentation process is where the grape juice becomes wine when special yeast, added to the juice, converts the natural sugars into alcohol.

______ (T) During the settling, the grape sediment separates from the juice and settles to the bottom of the vat and is transferred, usually by siphon, into different vats and allowed to settle further.

______ (U) After picking grapes it is necessary to crush them into a mass of pulp and juice called "must".


Although fixed-wing aircraft receive great attention by many historians, helicopter flight was the first envisioned by humanity.

______ (Q) Many extraordinary models followed by an ever increasing number of great thinkers, but all the pioneers were missing two essentials: a true understanding of the nature of lift and an adequate engine.

______ (R) The great breakthrough came at the end of the nineteenth century.

______ (S) In fact, the ancient Chinese were playing with a hand-spun toy that rose upward when revolved rapidly and, as early as the mid 1500's, Leonardo Da Vinci had used his fertile mind to make drawings of a machine that we now know as the helicopter.

______ (T) His design, like many others to follow, would, however, work theoretically but would have been impractical in full-sized form.

______ (U) The internal combustion engine made it possible for the pioneers to develop full-sized models with an adequate power source.

Oil has been known about and used since ancient times and has been mentioned by most ancient historians since the time of Herodotus.  

______ (Q) Oil flows from natural springs in many localities and it was obtained from such springs in what is now Western Pennsylvania by the Seneca Indians, who also used it for medicinal purposes.  

______ (R) It was used, however, chiefly as a liniment or medicine, not as a fuel, and the Bible refers to pitch being used for building purposes - cementing walls - in Babylon.

______ (S) The area quickly boomed and the modern oil industry was born with Texas and Oklahoma later becoming the centers of US production.

______ (T) Following World War II the Middle East became a major supplier for US use as well.

______ (U) The first oil well was drilled in that region by Edwin Drake in 1859; the well was 69 feet deep and produced 15 barrels a day.

Although Shackleton never did reach the South Pole, he is more fondly remembered than the explorers who did.

______ (Q) Writing to his wife Emily, he quipped, "I thought you'd rather have a live donkey than a dead lion."

______ (R) In 1907, Shackleton and the British Antarctic Expedition set sail in the Nimrod for the Ross Sea.

______ (S) Indeed, Shackleton earned the admiration of generations of explorers by making the agonizing decision to turn back within 97 miles of the pole rather than risk the lives of his men.

______ (T) Shackleton, with Jameson Adams, Frank Wild, and Eric Marshall, failed to reach the pole but set a record for going the farthest south at that time, reaching 88ยบ23'S.

______ (U) Their goal: to trek with the aid of ponies to the South Pole along the Great Beardmore Glacier.


black hole: 51243

wine: 25341

helicopters: 34125

oil: 21453

south pole: 51432

Yes, I'm the guy who created the scandal in Asia awhile ago. I felt that the Korean performers I was teaching were not being treated up to acceptable standards, and I reported this to a Korean newspaper to help ensure that, in the future, performers would be treated better.