Monday, April 22, 2013

7 More Practice Paragraphs

Unfortunately I was not able to find very good videos for many of the topics below.  There's really a lot of garbage of youtube.  How can there not be a good documentary about Sigmund Freud or Big Ben on youtube?

Eleanor Roosevelt was an orphaned, "ugly-duckling" who grew up to be the First Lady of the United States.

______(Q) By 1910, Franklin was a New York state senator and as his political horizons expanded, so did Eleanor's social conscience about the plight of the poor and of African Americans.

______(R) Thus, she was astounded when her ambitious, handsome, and eligible fifth cousin Franklin Roosevelt, proposed marriage in 1905.

______(S) But, as a child she had shown no evidence of an outgoing, political nature.

______(T) She was the niece of President Teddy Roosevelt, of course, and as such, was no stranger to the world of politics.

______(U) Indeed, she had been a shy, awkward, and withdrawn young woman after having been raised by her strict and dour grandmother.

Calcium carbonate is used for the manufacture of putty, plaster, cement, and, of course, blackboard chalk.

______ (Q) Chalk, in its natural state, was used by early man in prehistoric times for cave paintings.

______ (R) Later, chalk was used as a pigment for artists and it was for artists that chalk was first manufactured into sticks.

______ (S) Calcium carbonate is made up of Foraminifera, shells of little dead marine animals. I

______ (T) It is found in the earth’s crust during all geological periods and is usually formed in thick deposits around marine, or formerly marine areas.

______ (U) There are other types of naturally occurring chalk, including black chalk and red chalk.

Famous around the world for keeping impeccable time, the Big Ben Clock Tower was fully operational on September 7th, 1859.

______ (Q) The bell itself weighs almost 14 tons, and takes its name from the man who first ordered the bell, Sir Benjamin Hall.

______ (R) Although most people refer to the entire tower as the Big Ben Clock Tower, the name Big Ben actually refers to the bell housed within the tower. 

______ (S) The base of each of the clock face's of the Big Ben in London bears a Latin inscription meaning, "Lord save our Queen Victoria I", as the Big Ben Clock Tower and the adjoining Westminster Palace were constructed during the Victorian age.

______ (T) The four clock faces of the Big Ben in London are each 23 feet in diameter; the biggest of its kind when it was constructed. 

______ (U) Certain pieces of these four clock faces of the Big Ben in London have been designed for easy removal, to allow for cleaning and maintenance of the clock hands.

Since cephalochordates have no hard parts, their fossil record is extremely sparse.

______ (Q) They strengthen the case for an origin of true vertebrates from a cephalochordate-like ancestor.

______ (R) These fossils show that the chordate lineage appeared very early in the known history of the animal kingdom.

______ (S) More recently, Yunnanozoon, from the Early Cambrian of south China, was reported to be a cephalochordate, the earliest known.

______ (T) The famous Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia has yielded a few fossils of Pikaia, which appears to be a cephalochordate (although the fossils are still being restudied).

______ (U) However, fossil cephalochordates have been found in very old rocks indeed, predating the origin of the vertebrates.

Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was highly influenced by the field of physics.

______ (Q) The application of this principle led to the monumental discoveries in the fields of thermodynamics, electromagneticism, and nuclear physics which, with their associated technologies, have so comprehensively transformed the contemporary world.

______ (R) When he first came to the University of Vienna Freud worked under the direction of Ernst Brücke, who in 1874 published a book setting out the view that all living organisms, including the human one, are essentially energy-systems to which, no less than to inanimate objects, the principle of the conservation of energy applies.

______ (S) Freud, who had great admiration and respect for Brücke, quickly adopted this new 'dynamic physiology' with enthusiasm.

______ (T) The second 50 years of the nineteenth century saw monumental advances in contemporary physics, which were largely initiated by the formulation of the principle of the conservation of energy by Helmholz.

______ (U) This principle states that the total amount of energy in any given physical system is always constant, that energy quanta can be changed but not annihilated, and consequently that when energy is moved from one part of the system it must reappear in another part.

Early in the morning of Sunday, August 13, 1961, the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) began to block off East Berlin from West Berlin by means of barbed wire and antitank obstacles.

______ (Q) Streets were torn up, and barricades of paving stones were erected an tanks gathered at crucial places.

______ (R) The wall would not come down until the fall of communism in 1989.

______ (S) Then, the subway and local railway services between East and West Berlin were interrupted.

______ (T) In the following days, construction brigades began replacing the provisional barriers by a solid wall.

______ (U) Suddenly, within hours of these measures, inhabitants of East Berlin and the GDR were no longer allowed to enter West Berlin, among them 60,000 commuters who had worked in West Berlin.

During the Berlin Olympics of 1936, the Nazis portrayed African-Americans as inferior and ridiculed the United States for relying on “ athletes to win medals.”

______ (Q) But the German people felt otherwise.

______ (R) On Aug. 3, the 5-foot-10, 165-pound Owens won his first final, taking the 100 meters in 10.3 seconds, edging out Ralph Metcalfe, also an African-American.

______ (S) One German official even complained that the Americans were letting "non-humans, like Owens and other Negro athletes," compete.

______ (T) Crowds of 110,000 cheered him in Berlin's glittering Olympic Stadium and his autograph or picture was sought as he walked the streets.

______ (U) He would win three more medals, including the long-jump medal, when he beat the blonde-haired and blue-eyed German favorite.


E. Roosevelt: 5,4,2,1,3

chalk: 4,5,1,2,3

Big Ben: 2,1,5,3,4

amphioxus: 5,4,3,2,1

Freud: 3,4,5,1,2

Berlin Wall: 1,5,2,4,3

Owens: 2,4,1,3,5